As IoT promises magnificent opportunities! Many organizations seek the inclusion of IoT products in their business operations. In reality, it seems complicated to implement multiple devices and conditions required to make it work.
To deal with the whole different factors affecting IoT Architecture, it is simple and more efficient to find a reliable provider of IoT Solutions. There is no single and general accordance with IoT Architecture that is agreed by the whole world and researchers. Different architecture has been proposed by different researchers. The most proposed architectures are three-layer architectures & five-layer architecture.
Before moving forward, it is important to understand what this concept actually means. In reality, IoT Architecture is the system of countless elements such as sensors, actuators, protocols, cloud services, and layers. In addition to that, IoT Architecture layers are differentiated in order to evaluate the consistency of the system. And it needs the same plan that any technology needs, including a plan for how it will merge into an organization’s existing infrastructure and system.
Three-layer IoT Architecture:
This architecture was introduced in the early days of research of IoT technology. The three-layers in IoT architecture are:
Application Layer: The application layer defines all applications in which IoT has been deployed. It is the interface between the end IoT devices and the network. IoT Applications such as smart homes, smart health, smart cities, etc. It has the authority to provide services to the applications. The services may be different for each application because of services based on the information collected by sensors.
It is applied through a dedicated application at the device end. Such as for a computer, the application layer is applied by the browser. It is the browser that executes application layer protocols like HTTP, HTTPS, SMTP and FTP.
Network Layer: This layer is also known as a transmission layer. It acts like a bridge that carries and transmits data gathered from physical objects through sensors. The medium can be wireless or wire-based. It also connects the network devices and networks to each other. Hence, it is extremely sensitive. It has important security issues regarding integrity and authentication of data that is being transmitted to the network.
Perception Layer: It is the physical layer, which has sensors for sensing and gathering information about the environment. It senses some physical parameters or identifies other smart objects in the environment. As the basis for every IoT system, connected devices are responsible for providing the essence of the Internet of Things which is the data. To pick up physical parameters in the outside world or within the object itself, they need sensors. These can be either embedded in the devices themselves or implemented as standalone objects to measure and collect telemetry data. For an example, think of agricultural sensors whose task is to measure parameters such as air and soil temperature and humidity, soil pH levels or crop exposure to sunlight.
Another indispensable element of this layer is the actuators. Being in close collaboration with the sensors, they can transform the data generated by smart objects into physical action. Let’s imagine a smart watering system with all the necessary sensors in place. Based on the input provided by the sensors, the system analyses the situation in real time and commands the actuators to open selected water valves located in places where soil humidity is below the set value. The valves are kept open until the sensors report that the values are restored to default. Obviously, all of this happens without a single human intervention.
Five-layer IoT Architecture
Another architecture which is five-layer IoT architecture is proposed by the researchers who worked on IoT. In this five-layer IoT architecture, the three-layers which are the application, network, and perception layers have the same architecture as three-layer IoT architecture. Additionally, the Business layer, Transport layer, and processing layer are the new ones.
Transport Layer: This layer forwards the data from the processing layer to the perception layer and vice versa through wireless networks like LAN, 3G and Bluetooth, etc.
Processing Layer: It is in the middle of the IoT architecture. It’s having an important role in this five-layer IoT architecture. This layer stores the data and process the data which comes from the transport layer.
This processing layer is able to implement latest technologies like big data, DBMS and cloud computing, etc.
Business Layer: This layer is the head of the IoT architecture. It manages the complete IoT system even applications, user’s privacy, profit models, etc.
The smart home consists of all the devices are connected with a network and communicated with the internet. To develop a smart system like this five-layer IoT protocol stack is the best one.
Over the last two decades, the Internet of Things has kept expanding rapidly across the globe. Having worked its way to numerous industry branches such as manufacturing, healthcare, automotive, security, transportation and more, it has significantly empowered enterprises and brought them economic value.
Today, the Internet of Things supports dozens of different IoT protocols. In view of this, many IoT experts have started to call for a global protocol standardization. Yet, being inherently fragmented, the IoT market will probably never be in actual need of an all-embracing standard. Just as there are newer and newer applications and use cases cropping up within the IoT industry, fit-for-purpose IoT protocols for their deployment will continue to emerge along the way.
Again, it should be emphasized that safe and effective device management is the keystone of the sustainable development of IoT networks worldwide. This is one of the reasons why describing and making sense of the various IoT protocols really matters.
Therefore, what is really needed is the knowledge of one’s own business needs and requirements, awareness of the advantages and drawbacks of the protocols offered by the market, and the ability to pick the one that best suits a given use case.